Chad is a Central African country. Stretching from the
Sahara desert to savannah areas, the country covers an
area of 1,284,000 km2. It borders Libya to
the north; Sudan to the east; the Central African
Republic, to the south; Cameroon and Nigeria to the
southwest and Niger to the west. The largest cities are
Ndjamena, the capital, with 617,800 inhabitants (2004),
Moundou (130,600 inhabitants), Bongor (23,800
inhabitants), Sarh (87,800 inhabitants), Abéché (63,600
inhabitants) and Doba (20,800 inhab.) All of these data
are from 2004. There is a great climatic variation
across the territory. The vegetation reflects the
climatic variation: from the savanna that develops to
the south, one passes to the steppe, which progressively
gives way to the sand desert, where the vegetation only
appears in the oases when there are more superficial
water sheets. Existing animal species (elephants, lions,
leopards and cheetahs) are found in the most humid
The climate is humid tropical in the south of
the country, progressively changing to dry tropical as
you go further north. In the central region, the climate
is semi-desert and, in the North, it is characterized by
great aridity (Sahara desert).
Agriculture forms the economic base of Chad. The
scarcity of arable soil, combined with irregularity and
insufficient rainfall, makes this activity very
precarious, which is why food crises in the country are
frequent. The main agricultural products are sugar cane,
cassava, yams, peanuts, corn, cotton, sweet potatoes,
dates and rice. With the exception of cotton, which is
the country's main export, agricultural production is
intended for domestic consumption. Cattle breeding is
very important, but the lack of pastures conditions its
development, so overgrazing contributes to the
desertification of the soil. Chad's main trading
partners are France, Portugal, Cameroon and Germany.
Environmental indicator: no data (1999).
The population is 9 944 201 inhabitants (2006), which
corresponds to a population density of 8 inhab./km2. The
birth and death rates are, respectively, 45.73% and
16.38% (2006). Average life expectancy is 47.52
years. The value of the Human Development Index (HDI) is
0.376 and the value of the Gender-adjusted Development
Index (IDG) is 0.366 (2001). The most important ethnic
groups are Bagirmi, Sudanese Arab, Teda, Mbum, Masalit,
Tama and Mubi. The majority religion is Muslim, followed
by Christian and, finally, by traditional beliefs. The
official languages are Arabic and French, but a large
part of the population speaks African dialects.
France started to occupy the territory at the end of the
19th century. After independence in 1960, the country
experienced periods of great internal instability and
even went to war with Libya. Between 1982 and 1995, Chad
experienced a time of terror. The power struggle has led
to successive massacres, causing thousands of deaths and
refugees. In 1995, the action of unions and associations
defending human rights managed to restore peace to the
country. The country is currently experiencing a
transitional political regime in which the prime
minister governs with a legislative assembly.
|1UpTravel.com - Maps of Chad
|Check out the city, country, shaded relief and political
maps of this Central African country, lying south of
Libya. Includes a city map of N'Djamena.
|Chad - About.com
|Browse a collection of articles and maps detailing the
political, social, industrial, and geographical state of
affairs in Chad.
|Chad - CIA World Factbook
|Find a map and demographical details on the population
of Chad. Includes details about the economy,
transportation, military, issues, and government.
|Chad - InfoPlease.com Map
|View a user-friendly map of this northcentral African
country and pinpoint key cities, bordering nations, and
|Chad - National Geographic
|Satellite imaging and political map-making combine to
offer users a zoomable map of this African country, and
its cities, rivers and topography.
|University of Texas Library - Small Map of Chad
|Access a small, graphical map of the country of Chad and
locate key cities and national borders.